Winona Brown is an Alameda Brown Ware type found along Walnut Creek and in adjacent localities in the San Francisco Mountain region of northern Arizona.
Archaeological Culture: Sinagua
Date Range: A.D. 1000-1150.
Construction: By paddle and anvil.
Firing: In an oxidizing atmosphere.
Core Color: Gray to dark brown; usually well-fired.
Temper: Abundant very coarse rounded or crushed volcanic tuff (gray, white, buff, or reddish); occasional minute quartz crystals, sometimes a few grains of volcanic sand.
Surface Finish: Outside smoothed, never slipped, wiping marks often prominent; interiors almost never polished or finished; anvil marks conspicuous even in bowls.
Surface Color: Exterior and interior bowls and jars: buff, orange, to dark brown to dark gray (near black); interiors: rarely smudged black.
Forms: Jars predominate, bowls, shallow plates, odd forms such as rectangular bowls rare; Gila shoulder present on many vessels.
Vessel Thickness: 3 to 15 mm; average 6.5 mm.
Comparisons: Winona Brown differs from Rio de Flag Brown by having crushed or rounded coarse volcanic temper and in being more buff or orange than brown. Sunset Red has a predominance of cinder temper, and is predominantly red in color; Winona Brown is never red. Turkey Hill Red has very smooth red-slipped surfaces. Angell Brown is the same as Winona Brown except that the temper shows mostly sanadine crystals rather than gray volcanic tuff.
Other Names: Flagstaff Ware.
Compiled from the following sources:
Colton, Harold. (1958) Pottery Types of the Southwest. Museum of Northern Arizona Ceramic Series No. 3D. Flagstaff, Arizona.
April Peters, Northern Arizona University Anthropology Laboratories.